Ashraf Khan is a Senior Financial Sector Expert at the Monetary and Capital Markets Department of the IMF. He leads MCM’s work on central bank governance, transparency, risk management, and cash currency management. He also contributes to the Fund’s work on fintech, and Islamic Finance, and manages the IMF’s Central Bank Legislation Database.

Before joining the IMF, Ashraf worked as Head of the Governance and Accounting Department at the Central Bank of the Netherlands, as WTO Trade Policy Advisor at the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, and as a corporate lawyer with CMS Derks Star Busmann.

He holds a Master of Dutch Private Law, and a Master of International Law from the Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, as well as a Master of Philosophy from Jawaharhal Nehru University, New Delhi.

Ashraf is a founding Board Member of the Duisenberg School of Finance, Amsterdam, and has published numerous articles on governance, risk management, fintech and central bank digital currencies. His latest paper (with co-author Majid Malaika) covers the links between central bank risk management, fintech, and cybersecurity.

Majid Malaika joined the International Monetary Fund early 2015 and has built the Application Security practice at the IMF from the ground up; he is currently working as the Lead Digital Transformation and Cybersecurity Risks within the Digital Advisory Unit in the IMF’s Information Technology Department  to enable the Fund to experiment and research emerging technologies such as blockchain/DLT, smart contract, big data, machine learning and artificial intelligence and its impact to Technical Assistance missions, growth and stability for the Fund’s member countries.

Majid received his MSc degree in Computer Engineering and his Doctorate Degree in Software Engineering from Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. His research has been published in various journals and conferences including the CorssTalk Department of Defense (DoD) journal.

Majid’s prior engagements were application security specialist and security consulting for leading educational technology companies and multinational financial firms in New York, NY. His work experience includes threat modeling, architecture risk analysis, risk management, secure code review, penetration testing; in addition to researching the security of Fintech topics such as Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), smart contract, open banking and many more.

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